Alternative treatments

Ultraviolet Irradiation of Blood: “The Cure That Time Forgot”?

Abstract Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, UBI use declined and […]

antioxidant strategies Upregulate ABCD2

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Induces Adrenoleukodystrophy (Abcd2) Gene in Human X-ALD Fibroblasts and Inhibits the Proinflammatory Response in Abcd1/2 Silenced Mouse Primary Astrocytes

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Induces Adrenoleukodystrophy (Abcd2) Gene in Human X-ALD Fibroblasts and Inhibits the Proinflammatory Response in Abcd1/2 Silenced Mouse Primary Astrocytes Jaspreet Singh, Mushfiquddin Khan, and Inderjit Singh*Author informationCopyright and License informationDisclaimerThe publisher’s final edited version of this article is available at Biochim Biophys ActaSee other articles in PMC that cite the published […]


Biomarker Identification, Safety, and Efficacy of High-Dose Antioxidants for Adrenomyeloneuropathy: a Phase II Pilot Study

Abstract X-Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and its adult-onset, most prevalent variant adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) are caused by mutations in the peroxisomal transporter of the very long-chain fatty acid ABCD1. AMN patients classically present spastic paraparesis that can progress over decades, and a satisfactory treatment is currently lacking. Oxidative stress is an early culprit in X-ALD pathogenesis. A combination […]



Pre-clinical studies with OP-101 have shown normalization of microglia, prevention of neuronal loss, and restoration of motor function.  OP-101 is currently being evaluated for safety and pharmacokinetics in a healthy volunteer study in the United States (view on Summary of OP-101 Nonclinical Studies Efficacy demonstrated in animal models of human neonatal inflammation  Maternal-fetal inflammation […]

antioxidant strategies

The Role of NAC in Amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer’s Disease

In 1993, Saitoh and colleagues identified the non-Aβ component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyloid (NAC), as an important element of amyloid-enriched fractions in AD brains. 1 NAC is a 35-amino acid (aa) fragment derived from its 140-aa precursor, α-synuclein, which is now recognized to play a major role in Lewy body disease (LBD) pathogenesis. 2 […]

antioxidant strategies

Neuron differentiation and neuritogenesis stimulated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC).

Abstract AIM: To investigate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, on neuron differentiation of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) induced by retinoic acid (RA) in vitro. Superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons were used to study the effect of NAC on neuritogenesis. METHODS: Immunoblotting was performed to detect the expression of microtubule-associated protein […]

antioxidant strategies

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in neurological disorders: mechanisms of action and therapeutic opportunities

Abstract Background There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of medicines with multiple mechanisms of action across neurological disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), widely known as an antidote to acetaminophen overdose, is now emerging as treatment of vascular and nonvascular neurological disorders. NAC as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and […]

antioxidant strategies


Associated Data Supplementary MaterialsGo to: Abstract Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibit T-cell dysfunction which can be regulated through the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by glutathione. Therefore, the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of glutathione-precursor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were examined in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Methods 36 SLE patients […]

antioxidant strategies

Getting a Knack for NAC

Abstract N-acetyl-cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl cysteine, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine are all designations for the same compound, which is abbreviated as NAC. NAC is a precursor to the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately plays two key metabolic roles. Through its metabolic contribution to glutathione production, cysteine participates in the general antioxidant activities of the body. Through its role […]