Nonpharmacologic Approaches to Spasticity Management

Spasticity, defined as a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone caused by the increased excitability of the muscle stretch reflex, is a challenging symptom that frequently accompanies severe neurological conditions including stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebral palsy (CP), and spinal cord injury.1 The mechanisms of spasticity are complex, involving an inhibitory/excitatory disruption to the spinal network…

The Role of Spasticity in Functional Neurorehabilitation- Part I: The Pathophysiology of Spasticity, the Relationship with the Neuroplasticity, Spinal Shock and Clinical Signs

Abstract The symptom/clinical sign of spasticity is extremely important in functional neurorehabilitation, since it reduces the functional independence both in the quadruped animal as in the human biped. This clinical sign/symptom manifests itself alongside with pain, muscle weakness, impaired coordination and poor motor planning, leading to a spastic movement disorder. To perform a correct FNR…

Current and Future Pharmacological Treatment Strategies in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

Abstract DMutations in the ABCD1 gene cause the clinical spectrum of the neurometabolic disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy/adrenomyeloneuropathy (X-ALD/AMN). Currently, the most efficient therapeutic opportunity for patients with the cerebral form of X-ALD is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and possibly gene therapy of autologous hematopoietic stem cells. Both treatments, however, are only accessible to a subset of…