Nonpharmacologic Approaches to Spasticity Management

Spasticity, defined as a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone caused by the increased excitability of the muscle stretch reflex, is a challenging symptom that frequently accompanies severe neurological conditions including stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebral palsy (CP), and spinal cord injury.1 The mechanisms of spasticity are complex, involving an inhibitory/excitatory disruption to the spinal network…

The Role of Spasticity in Functional Neurorehabilitation- Part I: The Pathophysiology of Spasticity, the Relationship with the Neuroplasticity, Spinal Shock and Clinical Signs

Abstract The symptom/clinical sign of spasticity is extremely important in functional neurorehabilitation, since it reduces the functional independence both in the quadruped animal as in the human biped. This clinical sign/symptom manifests itself alongside with pain, muscle weakness, impaired coordination and poor motor planning, leading to a spastic movement disorder. To perform a correct FNR…